El rebozo, símbolo de identidad nacional

March 21, 2016

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El rebozo   Historia del rebozo   mujer mexicana  



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El mágico colorido del rebozo identifica a la mujer mexicana en el mundo. En su versión original lo mismo protegía a la mujer del calor que del frío, le servía para transportar tanto a sus hijos como objetos. Dependiendo de su tamaño y materia prima se usaba diariamente o para celebraciones especiales, incluso forma parte de trajes regionales de México.

El rebozo es de forma rectangular, alargada, angosta, de una sola pieza y terminados a cada extremo con anudados y flecos llamados rapacejos, aunque también se elaboran las terminaciones tejidas con atractivos diseños en chaquira. Los rebozos pueden medir entre 1.5 y 3 metros de longitud, de 1 a 1.5 metros de ancho, aunque actualmente los largos son: normal de 3.60 m., mediano de 2.80 m. y chico de 2.20 m., cuenta con 7,200 hilos en la urdimbre (hilos que van a lo largo). Son elaborados con materiales diversos según sea su uso, cotidianos o de gala, por lo que pueden ser de algodón, lana, articela (o artiseda) o de seda y con ello varía su costo. Una prueba para descubrir si el rebozo está hecho de seda natural y no de fibras sintéticas es hacer pasar el rebozo por un anillo. Sólo los de seda natural podrán superar la prueba.

El rebozo es un símbolo de la identidad nacional; define y reconoce el sentido mexicano frente a las otras naciones, a través de los procesos de comunicación que se establecen en el territorio nacional en torno a él. Como tradición y símbolo, el rebozo está presente en la indumentaria típica de la mayoría de las mujeres mexicanas, usándolo con orgullo en su cotidianidad, fiestas y celebraciones. Se han identificado más de un centenar de formas de usar el rebozo.

 Historia del rebozo

Existen diferentes explicaciones sobre los orígenes del rebozo. Algunos afirman que proviene del Oriente, pues los ascetas en la Persia antigua, acostumbraban cubrirse con una especie de manto que terminó convirtiéndose en el elegante chal. Este capote se popularizo más tarde en España y cuando llegaron los conquistadores a México en 1519, la prenda ya formaba parte del atuendo de las damas ibéricas que usaban una mantilla para cubrirse la cabeza.

Otros especialistas consideran que los primeros antecedentes del rebozo se remontan a la época prehispánica, en la tilma o ayate, gabán de ixtle, elaborado en telares de cintura, empleado indistintamente por hombres y mujeres para abrigarse. La tilma además servía para transportar mercancías, al igual que el mamatl, un lienzo de forma rectangular. Para otros, la fusión de estas prendas son las raíces del rebozo, tan mestizo como los mexicanos.

Concluida la Conquista de México, los españoles impusieron prohibiciones en el siglo XVI para someter a los pueblos nativos y asimilarlos, las costumbres y vestimentas indígenas no fueron la excepción y se persiguió el uso de la tilma. Por ello, las mujeres rediseñaron esta prenda volviéndola más larga y angosta, además de embellecerla con tintes y diseños geométricos. Así, el rebozo se convirtió en una insólita expresión de resistencia e identidad.

El rebozo en esta época se confeccionaba según la posición social de su propietaria; las mujeres de estratos sociales bajos lucían un manto de algodón predominando un rebozo rayado con dibujos de ikat (teñido de patrones, mediante ataduras) o bordados, con un rapacejo corto que llevaba solamente unos picos anudados; mientras que las de clase alta mandaban hacer el rebozo con seda, listas de oro y plata, bordados con hilos de otros

“Acude al altar el pueblo, pues según el vulgo cuenta, si ante el Señor del Rebozo treinta y tres credos se rezan, de tres gracias que le pidan una gracia nunca niega, siempre que resulte justa y al creyente convenga”.

Fragmento de El Señor del Rebozo, de Juan de Dios Peza, Leyenda de la calle de S. Catalina.de Siena…

metales y colores, pero estas exquisiteces no satisfacían el gusto de las damas, que influenciadas por el barroquismo de la época, enriquecieron estas piezas con calados de paisajes y evocaciones de escenas costumbristas. En el siglo XVIII el rebozo era un elemento de uso común entre las mujeres de la Colonia, alcanzó tal importancia que durante este siglo se dictaron leyes y reglas para la elaboración en cuanto al tamaño, tejido, clase de hilo y dibujo.

Se utilizaba como cuna, para cubrirse o arroparse, e incluso en algunos casos como mortaja. Don Juan Francisco de Güemes, Conde de Revillagigedo, virrey de la Nueva España entre 1746 y 1755, comenta sobre esta versátil prenda: “Lo llevan sin exceptuar ni aún las monjas, las señoras más principales y ricas, y hasta las más infelices y pobres del bajo pueblo. Usan de ella como mantilla, como manteleta, en el estrado, en el paseo, y aún en la casa; se la tercian, se la ponen en la cabeza, se embozan con ella y la atan y anudan alrededor del cuerpo”.

Para el siglo XIX el rebozo formó parte de la vestimenta indispensable de las mujeres, incluso en las fotografías revolucionarias se puede ver a las soldaderas portando los tradicionales rebozos de bolita.

En el siglo XX Frida Kahlo se convirtió en la figura icónica en el uso del rebozo, prenda que luce portando en varios de sus autorretratos y en fotografías de la época, aunque también se observa como elemento en varias de sus pinturas.

El uso de esta prenda también propicia el sentido figurativo en la literatura, suele interpretarse “de rebozo” mecanismo correspondiente a “ocultamente” y “sin rebozo” igual a “con franqueza”.

Esta prenda también quedó en la memoria musical con las canciones “Aires del mayab” de Carlos Duarte Moreno y Pepe Domínguez, y “La del rebozo blanco” de Rubén Fuentes y Rafael Cárdenas, entre otras, mismas que también fueron interpretadas en las películas de la Época de Oro del cine mexicano. Cómo olvidar “El son de la Negra” y su letra “¿Cuándo me traes a mi negra? Que la quiero ver aquí, con su rebozo de seda que le traje de Tepic“,  o la famosa canción infantil de Cri-crí: “La Patita”: “La patita, de canasta y con rebozo de bolita, va al mercado…”.

Fuente:
Casa Mejicú - Link (www.casamejicu.wordpress.com)



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